Do macrophages express EGFR?
As reported before that EGFR is expressed in macrophages (24, 25), our data showed that mouse peritoneal and colonic macrophages expressed EGFR (Figure 1A–B).
What happens to macrophages during inflammation?
In inflammation, macrophages have three major function; antigen presentation, phagocytosis, and immunomodulation through production of various cytokines and growth factors. Macrophages play a critical role in the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of inflammation.
What is EGFR antagonist?
(… in-HIH-bih-ter) A substance that blocks the activity of a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is found on the surface of some normal cells and is involved in cell growth. It may also be found at high levels on some types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow and divide.
How do macrophages reduce inflammation?
M2b macrophages suppress inflammation by increasing IL-10 production, although they also secrete IL-6, IL-β, and TNF, and express high levels of iNOS.
What is the role of macrophages in acute inflammation?
Once the acute injury has been controlled, macrophages play a role in suppressing inflammation and initiating wound repair by clearing debris and producing growth factors and mediators that provide trophic support to the tissue in which they reside (48).
What triggers activation of macrophages?
Macrophages are activated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from various sources – including activated NK cells or T cells – or by non-immunologic stimuli such as endotoxin.
What happens when EGFR is inhibited?
EGFR is found on the surface of some normal cells and is involved in cell growth. It may also be found at high levels on some types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow and divide. Blocking EGFR may keep cancer cells from growing.
What does the EGFR gene do?
A gene that makes a protein that is involved in cell growth and cell survival. Mutated (changed) forms of the EGFR gene and protein have been found in some types of cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer. These changes may cause cancer cells to grow and spread in the body.
Can macrophages be anti inflammatory?
M2 or anti-inflammatory macrophages are induced by IL-4 or IL-13 secreted by innate and adaptive immune cells, such as mast cells, basophils, and TH-2 lymphocytes (10, 11). Alternatively-activated macrophages are characterized by an anti-inflammatory profile, which permits resolution of inflammation and tissue repair.
Can macrophages be anti-inflammatory?
What happens when a macrophage is activated?
Activated macrophages undergo many changes which allow them to kill invading bacteria or infected cells. They release toxic chemicals and proteins which have toxic effects on other cells.
What cytokines attract macrophages?
When macrophages are exposed to inflammatory stimuli, they secrete cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12. Although monocytes and macrophages are the main sources of these cytokines, they are also produced by activated lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts.
What does EGF bind to?
A protein found on certain types of cells that binds to a substance called epidermal growth factor. The epidermal growth factor receptor protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that control cell division and survival.
What is EGFR expression?
EGFR expression is more common in breast tumors in younger and black women. It is associated with lower hormone receptor levels, higher proliferation, genomic instability, and HER2 over-expression. It is correlated with higher risk of relapse in patients receiving adjuvant treatment.