# How does a Rubens tube work physics?

## How does a Rubens tube work physics?

It is a tube that is sealed at both ends in includes a flammable gas like propane. A speaker is attached to one end of the tube so sound waves can be transmitted thought the air/gas mixture. Small holes are drilled in the top of the tube and when the air/gas mixture emerges it creates a flame.

What is the science behind a Rubens tube?

In the Rubens’ tube, when the speaker is turned on, the sound wave produced causes flexible metal film next to it to vibrate at the specific frequency of the sound wave. This causes the gas particles in the tube to compress and stretch apart like above.

How does Rubens tube demonstrate standing waves?

In 1905, Heinrich Rubens and Otto Krigar-Menzel published a paper describing a unique acoustics teaching apparatus. They developed a flammable gas-filled tube with holes in the top that revealed the acoustic standing wave behavior via the height of flames above the tube.

### Why is the flame high in some points and low in others?

Flame height is determined by vegetation height, fuel moisture and wind speed. Short vegetation, high fuel moisture and low wind speed results in short flame height and vice-versa for tall flames. Fire intensity is the rate at which energy (heat) is released as the fire burns.

How do you use a Rubens tube?

Open up the valve on the propane tank fully. Let the Rubens tube fill with gas before lighting. Light the Rubens Tube and use the valve on the fitting to adjust the flame height. Turn on the amplifier or frequency generator to see effects of standing waves.

How do you make a Reuben tube?

How to build a Rubens’ tube

1. Pick a pipe You’ll need an aluminium tube, from 5cm to 20cm in diameter, that’s more than two metres long.
2. Seal it Cap off one end of the tube entirely.
3. Go plumbing Attach your speaker firmly to the rubber end.
4. Get connected Drill a hole on the side — aim for the middle.

## Does sound travel faster in a tube?

The phase of matter has a large impact upon the elastic properties of a medium. In general, the bond strength between particles is strongest in solid materials and is weakest in the gaseous state. As a result, sound waves travel faster in solids than in liquids, and faster in liquids than in gasses.

Why does oxygen make fire bigger?

Surface area: The bigger the area of the surface of the fuel, the more oxygen molecules can collide with the surface. The more oxygen molecules that collide per second with the fuel, the faster the combustion reaction is. You can increase the surface area of a solid by breaking it up into smaller pieces.

Does oxygen make fire bigger?

Oxygen is not flammable, but it does intensify the combustion process and can cause fire to burn hotter and faster. It does not act as fuel for the fire to burn, it does however act as the oxidizing part of the fire triangle.

### Why do the flames have a wave pattern when the sound is turned on?

Pressure variation caused by the inflow of propane gas interfering with the input of sound waves into the plane causes changes in the height and color of the flames.

What frequency does fire vibrate at?

In summary, a frequency of 100 kHz (kilohertz) affected the fire the most. In 2004, firefighters responded to a four-alarm two story warehouse fire in Taos, New Mexico. Upon entering the second story of the warehouse, two firefighters were quickly overcome by flames.

What is the main factor that affects the speed of a sound wave?

The speed of the sound depends on the density and the elasticity of the medium through which it travels. In general, sound travels faster in liquids than in gases and quicker in solids than in liquids. The greater the elasticity and the lower the density, the faster sound travels in a medium.

## Why does sound travel faster in denser materials?

The closer the molecules are to each other and the tighter their bonds, the less time it takes for them to pass the sound to each other and the faster sound can travel. It is easier for sound waves to go through solids than through liquids because the molecules are closer together and more tightly bonded in solids.

What causes resonance in a pipe?

PhysicsLAB: Resonance in Pipes. Every object, substance, has a natural frequency at which it is “willing” to vibrate. When an external agent applies a forced vibration that matches this natural frequency, the object begins to vibrate with ever increasing amplitude, or resonate.