What is bone turnover?

What is bone turnover?

Bone turnover is the process of resorption followed by replacement by new bone with little change in shape, and it occurs throughout a person’s life. Osteoclasts break down bone (bone resorption), releasing the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood.

Which ARV causes osteoporosis?

Therefore, osteopenia/osteoporosis, occasionally osteomalacia, and an increased risk of fracture are reported as major adverse effects of ART, especially in a regimen including the nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir3 and protease inhibitors.

Is bone turnover the same as bone remodeling?

Bone turnover can be estimated by measuring relevant bone biomarkers [2]. Bone remodelling, on the other hand, is defined as an active process throughout the skeleton, essential for calcium homeostasis and preserving the integrity of the skeleton, through the coupled activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts [3].

What are two key strategies for developing strong bones in the body?

Daily weight-bearing exercise, like walking, is the best medicine. Getting enough calcium and vitamin D are two other critical strategies for keeping bones strong.

How does TDF cause osteoporosis?

In particular, the antiretroviral drug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is associated with decreased BMD and increased bone turnover markers, which leads to osteoporosis-related bone fractures [6, 8].

Is bone remodeling painful?

Sub-Acute Pain While the Bone is Healing After about a week or two, the worst of the pain will be over. What happens next is that the fractured bone and the soft tissue around it start to heal. This takes a couple of weeks and is called subacute pain.

What causes low bone turnover?

Abstract. Background: Low turnover bone (low bone formation rates (BFRs)) with decreased osteoblast number is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and attributed to ‘over-suppression’ of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) despite supra-physiologic levels.

What causes high bone turnover?

For example, after a fracture, markers may remain increased for up to 6 months. Other causes could include high turnover states such as hyperparathyroidism or hyperthyroidism, Paget disease, malignancy including myeloma, or advanced renal failure.

What is TDF and TAF?

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an antiretroviral (ARV) medication approved in 2001 to prevent and treat HIV, and in 2008 to treat chronic hepatitis B. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a new and improved formulation of tenofovir, approved in 2015.

Does tenofovir cause bone loss?

Patients who have been treated with tenofovir DF-based antiretroviral HIV drugs like Atripla, Viread, and several other sister drugs, have shown an increased incidence of bone density loss and resulting conditions like osteoporosis and broken bones.