Table of Contents

## What is ec io?

The EC/IO is a measure of the quality/cleanliness of the signal from the tower to the modem and indicates the signal-to noise ratio (the ratio of the received/good energy to the interference/bad energy). It is measured in decibels (dB).

## What are the difference between EC and EB?

Eb/No – Energy per bit to noise power density ratio In general S/N ratio or C/N ratio or Eb/No terms are used. Ec/Io is specific to WCDMA technology. S/N stands for Signal to Noise ratio and used before modulation. C/N stands for Carrier to Noise rario and used after modulation.

**How is EBNO calculated?**

Noise power is computed using Boltzmann’s equation: N = kTB Where: k is Boltzmann’s constant = 1.380650×10-23 J/K; T is the effective temperature in Kelvin, and B is the receiver bandwidth.

### What dBm is good signal strength?

Signal strengths can range from approximately -30 dBm to -110 dBm. The closer that number is to 0, the stronger the cell signal. In general, anything better than -85 decibels is considered a usable signal.

### How SNR is calculated in LTE?

Suppose, LTE signal is 5MHz of bandwidth, with QPSK modulation and Code rate of 1/3. From SNR table, corresponding required SNR is -1dB. Suppose, NF of LTE receiver chain is around 5dB. Now if you increase the modulation to be 16QAM with code rate of 2/3, the required SNR becomes 11.3dB (as per table in SNR section).

**How is SNR and Eb no calculated?**

- •
- Eb/N0 is equal to the SNR divided by the “gross” link spectral efficiency in (bit/s)/Hz, where the bits in this context are transmitted data bits, inclusive of error correction information and other protocol overhead.
- B.
- M.
- B.
- • No = noise density, watts/Hz.
- log.
- milliWatts.

#### What is BER and EB No?

The energy per bit to noise ratio (Eb/No) where Eb is the energy per bit and No = kT (Boltzmann’s constant * system temperature). BER. Unitless. Real Number. Bit Error Rate (BER) is the probability that a bit is in error (i.e. a zero is transmitted but a one is received).

#### What is UE measurement?

Typically, a UE measures downlink signals while network measures uplink signals. However, it’s possible for a UE to measure uplink signals sent by other UE s. RRC manages measurement configuration. Most measurements are executed by Layer 1, although some may be at Layer 2.

**How do you calculate RSSI in LTE?**

RSSI = wideband power = noise + serving cell power + interference power

- RSRP is the received power of 1 RE (3GPP definition) average of power levels received across all Reference Signal symbols within the considered measurement frequency bandwidth.
- RSSI is measured over the entire bandwidth.

## How RSSI is calculated?

RSSI=Pt-PL(d). In this formula, Pt indicated the signal transmission power, PL(d) indicated the path loss when the distance is d, and they are both in dBm.

## How do you calculate distance from RSSI?

You can calculate the distance information from RSSI value with this formula: Distance = 10^((Measured Power – Instant RSSI)/10*N). N is the constant for the environmental factor.

**How many bars is dBm?**

Comparison of signal strength in decibels vs. bars vs. practical experience.

Signal Strength in dBm | Practical Signal Strength |
---|---|

-91 to -100 or 2 Bars. | Fair signal. However, voice quality and data transfer speed may be noticeably affected. Dropped calls are more common. |

### How is dBm measured?

It is used to define signal strength in wire and cables at radio and audio frequencies. dBm is measured is very small values. The formula for calculating dBm measurement is 10 x log (signal strength per milliwatts). Measurement of signal strength is in dBm and is the most accurate measurement available.

### How SNR is calculated?

Furthermore, for power, SNR = 20 log (S ÷ N) and for voltage, SNR = 10 log (S ÷ N). Also, the resulting calculation is the SNR in decibels. For example, your measured noise value (N) is 2 microvolts, and your signal (S) is 300 millivolts. The SNR is 10 log (.