What is Kachru model?
Kachru’s model describes the Inner Circle, Outer Circle and Expanding Circle as ‘norm-providing’, norm-developing’ and ‘norm-dependent’. However, Crystal (1995) comments that the model cannot represent the reality of international English use because the reality is often not so clear-cut.
What is Kachru’s model of World Englishes?
In his 1985 paper, Kachru classified Englishes using the now famous “three circles” model. These were concentric circles and he called them the inner, outer and expanding circles. The inner circle countries were those in which English was traditionally the first language of the majority of the speakers.
Who coined the term World English ‘?
1984. Kachru formally introduces the term “World Englishes” at the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Conference along with the global profile of English. Later, he proposes the three concentric circles model.
Which country belong to inner circle?
The Inner Circle is made up of countries in which English is the first or the dominant language. These countries include Australia, Britain, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and the United States. Also called the core English-speaking countries.
What is the outer circle?
The Outer Circle includes countries that have British colonial ties, and English is widely used in social life or in the government sector. Most of the countries that belong to this circle are former colonies of the British Empire, such as India, Malaysia, Singapore, Ghana, Kenya, and others.
Which country belongs to outer circle?
Countries in the outer circle include India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, and more than 50 other nations. Low Ee Ling and Adam Brown describe the outer circle as “those countries in the earlier phases of the spread of English in non-native settings[,] . . .
What is inner circle countries?
The inner circle refers to the countries where English is used as the primary language, such as the USA, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. The outer/middle circle denotes those countries where English usage has some colonial history.
Is Philippines a expanding circle?
Using Kachru’s model, Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore are in the Outer Circle while Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam are in the Expanding Circle. The Outer Circle countries used English as a second language while the Expanding Circle countries used English as a foreign language.
In what circle does China belong?
The expanding circle includes much of the rest of the world’s population – countries that do not hold historical or governmental importance towards English, but class it as a foreign language or lingua franca. Main examples of such countries include: most of Europe, China, Russia, Japan, Korea, Egypt and Indonesia.
What country belongs to the inner circle?
The inner circle refers to the countries where English is used as the primary language, such as the USA, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia.