What is the non revenue water in South Africa?
NRW is water that is lost before it reaches a commercial consumer or remains unbilled owing to leaks, poor metering, theft and other unaccountable losses. South Africa’s NRW situation is quite dire at 41%, compared with the global best practice of 15%.
What is the average of non revenue water all over the world?
The global volume of NRW has been estimated to be 346 million cubic metres per day or 126 billion cubic metres per year. Conservatively valued at only USD 0.31 per cubic metre, the cost/value of water lost amounts to USD 39 billion per year.
What causes non revenue water?
NRW can occur through physical losses from leaking and broken pipes, which are caused by poor operations and maintenance, the lack of active leakage control, and poor quality of underground assets.
What are the three components of non-revenue water?
Accordingly, NRW has the following components: Unbilled authorized consumption. Apparent losses (water theft and metering inaccuracies) Real losses (from transmission mains, storage facilities, distribution mains or service connections)
How do you calculate non-revenue water?
Total non-revenue water loss is measured by the volume of the water lost (in liters or gallons) as a percentage or share of the total water supplied during the same time period.
What is non-revenue water and its importance?
“Non-Revenue Water” (NRW)—defined as the difference between the amount of water put into the distribution system and the amount of water billed to consumers—averages 35% in the region’s cities and can reach much higher levels.
What is non-revenue water PDF?
• Non-Revenue Water is the difference between system input volume and billed authorized. consumption, and it consists of the following: • Unbilled Authorized Consumption (usually a minor component of water balance), • Apparent Losses, and • Real Losses. Non-Revenue Water. Chapter 9.
Why is non revenue water so high in so many cities?
The lack of incentives for management units, the defence of private interests due to corruption, the lack of awareness of citizens-users of the water service and the lack of political willingness are the main causes.