What is the product of nitration of toluene?
Toluene undergoes nitration to give ortho and para nitrotoluene isomers, but if heated it can give dinitrotoluene and ultimately the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT).
What happens during the nitration of toluene?
In toluene the ortho and para position is active. Thus, when nitration of toluene takes place nitro group gets attached to the ortho and para position to form 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene as a product.
What type of reaction is the nitration of toluene?
electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction
Hint: Before answering this question, we should know that nitration of Toluene involves electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. It involves addition of nitrate in ortho and meta position of an aromatic compound.
Is toluene ortho or para directing?
For example, the nitration of methyl benzene (toluene) will produce ortho and para nitrotoluene as the main product because the methyl group is an ortho‐para director. However, methylating nitrobenzene leads to the formation of meta nitrotoluene because the nitro group is meta directed.
What is the end product which is obtained on the nitration of toluene o nitrotoluene P nitrotoluene 2 4 dinitrotoluene 2 4 6 trinitrotoluene?
2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene.
Why is para major product?
When electrophilic substitution reaction takes place, and the ortho and para products are formed then among them para is considered as the major product and ortho as a minor product. The reason behind this is the steric hindrance.
What is the mechanism of nitration?
The mechanism for nitration of benzene: Step 1: Nitric acid accepts a proton from sulphuric acid and then dissociates to form nitronium ion. Step 2: The nitronium ion acts as an electrophile in the process which further reacts with benzene to form an arenium ion.
What is the active electrophile in the nitration of toluene experiment?
The actual electrophile in the reaction is the nitronium ion (NO2+) formed using concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid in situ in the reaction mixture of HNO3/H2SO4.
Which is more acidic ortho nitro toluene or para nitro toluene?
Answer. in short,due to extended conjunction p nitro toluene is more acidic than m nitro toluene.
Why is toluene author para directing?
IN CASE OF TOLUENE the methyl group attached to the ring, increases the electron density at ortho and para positions by resonance without changing anything at the meta position. Thus the attacking reagent directly attacks at the electron rich site , thus the methyl group is ortho directing.
Which explosive of the following is formed by nitration of toluene?
trinitrotoluene (TNT), a pale yellow, solid organic nitrogen compound used chiefly as an explosive, prepared by stepwise nitration of toluene.
Why ortho nitro toluene is major?
Usually when an ortho-para directing substituent is present on the benzene ring for an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, the para product is the major product (exceptions can be there when hydrogen bonding or ortho effect of COOH group makes the ortho product a major one.)
Why para product is more stable than ortho?
While in para hydrogen, the proton nuclear spins are aligned antiparallel to each other. – These two forms of molecular hydrogen are also referred to as spin isomers. – Now, due to antiparallel spin arrangement, para hydrogen has less energy and thus, they are more stable than ortho hydrogen.
Is para better than ortho?
The O-CH3 Group is an ortho, para Director Ortho and Para producst produces a resonance structure which stabilizes the arenium ion. This causes the ortho and para products for form faster than meta. Generally, the para product is preferred because of steric effects.
What are products of toluene combustion?
Why electrophilic substitution reaction occurs faster in toluene than benzene?
Answer. Hi mate, The above said positions (ortho and para) are the most reactive towards an electron-poor electrophile, thus promoting electrophillic substitution reaction. The methyl group hence makes it around 25 times more reactive than benzene hence making its nitration more easier than that of benzene.
What is the electrophile in aromatic nitration?
The “nitronium ion” or the “nitryl cation” is the electrophile, NO2+. This is caused by a reaction between sulphuric acid and nitric acid.
Why toluene is ortho and para directing?