What tests are used to diagnose cold agglutinin?

What tests are used to diagnose cold agglutinin?

Blood studies used in the diagnosis of cold agglutinin disease include the following:

  • Complete blood cell count (CBC) with differential.
  • Peripheral blood smear.
  • Reticulocyte count.
  • Direct Coombs test (direct antiglobulin test [DAT])
  • Serum protein electrophoresis and serum immunoelectrophoresis (immunofixation)

Why would a patient with a positive cold agglutinin test be tested?

A cold agglutinin test may be used to help detect cold agglutinin disease and determine the cause of a person’s hemolytic anemia.

How is a cold agglutinin test performed?

The cold agglutinin test measures the levels of cold agglutinins in a patient’s blood. The clinician takes a blood sample from the patient and separates it into several vials. Each portion of the sample is then diluted to a different level, and cooled overnight to determine at what dilution the patient’s blood clots.

What does cold agglutinin present mean?

Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a condition that makes your body’s immune system attack your red blood cells and destroy them. It’s triggered by cold temperatures, and it can cause problems that range from dizziness to heart failure. It’s also called cold antibody hemolytic anemia.

How do you collect cold agglutinin samples?

Collections Instructions:

  1. Use a warm pack to keep specimen at 37 degrees C prior to and after collecting.
  2. Allow specimens to clot at 37 degrees C.
  3. Immediately after blood clots or within one hour of collection, centrifuge at 37 degrees C and aliquot serum into a plastic vial.

What autoimmune disease causes cold?

Cold agglutinin disease, or CAD, is a rare autoimmune disorder in which self-targeting antibodies attack and destroy red blood cells at low temperatures.

Does cold agglutinin affect ESR?

Cold agglutinins are cold antibodies that are essentially immunoglobulins, typically IgM with anti-I or anti-i specificity. 1 Thus, with the presence of cold agglutinins, the ESR is predictably elevated.

What tube is used for cold agglutinin?

Serum separator tube or plain red. Refrigerated.

Is cold agglutinin disease life threatening?

Typical Prognosis One Norwegian study reported the median age of primary CAD patients to be 76 years, with a median age of onset of 67 years, a median survival of about 12.5 years following diagnosis, and a median age of 82 years at death.

What effect do cold agglutinins have to MCHC?

In the presence of cold agglutinin, a low temperature induces RBC agglutination, and an automated complete blood count analyzer shows decreases in RBC and hematocrit. Hemoglobin concentration is not affected by cold agglutinins, and MCH and MCHC are therefore markedly increased [13], [14].

What causes cold agglutinin?

Disease at a Glance Cold agglutinin disease can be primary (unknown cause) or secondary, due to an underlying condition such as an infection, another autoimmune disease, or certain cancers.