Which Tumour marker is raised in hepatocellular carcinoma?
Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker in detecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and has been proven to have capability of prefiguring the prognosis.
What is human hepatocellular carcinoma?
Liver cancer begins in the cells of the liver. The most common form of liver cancer begins in cells called hepatocytes and is called hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer.
What type of cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma?
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer. It is a serious illness that can be life-threatening. If it diagnosed early, hepatocellular carcinoma can be treated with surgery to remove the cancerous tumor or with a liver transplant.
What stage is hepatocellular carcinoma?
Histologic grade (G)
|Stage||Performance Status||Tumor Stage|
|A4||0||3 tumors, < 3 cm|
|Stage B: Intermediate HCC||0||Large, multinodular|
|Stage C: Advanced HCC||1-2||Vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread|
|Stage D: End-Stage HCC||3-4||Any|
What level of AFP is diagnostic of HCC?
AFP >400–500 ng/ml is considered diagnostic for HCC, although fewer than half of patients may generate levels that high 39.
Can Stage 3 liver cancer be cured?
There’s no cure for advanced liver cancer, but treatment can help slow its spread and ease symptoms. Your doctor will recommend a treatment based on where your cancer has spread and how well your liver still works.
What is AFP in hepatocellular carcinoma?
AFP is a serum glycoprotein that was first recognized as a marker for HCC more than 40 years ago and has since been described to detect preclinical HCC. The fetal yolk sac and fetal liver generate high levels of AFP, which decline to < 10 ng/dl within 300 days of birth 37.
Why is AFP high in HCC?
AFP levels may be elevated because of production by the tumor or by regenerating hepatocytes. Therefore, AFP levels are also frequently elevated in chronic active hepatitis C (levels of 200-300 ng/mL are not uncommon), but in those patients the levels tend to fluctuate and do not progressively increase.
Which hepatitis virus causes hepatocellular carcinoma?
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Individuals who are chronic carriers have a greater than 100-fold increased relative risk of developing the tumour.
Is hepatocellular carcinoma curable?
Since HCC usually grows slowly in its early stages, it can often be cured if discovered early enough.
How long do you have to live with stage 3 liver cancer?
Without treatment, the median survival for stage D liver cancer is less than 4 months. There are no treatments that work well for stage D liver cancers. But your doctors and specialist nurses will continue to treat any symptoms you may develop.